Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also termed chronic renal failure, is a condition in which the kidneys cease to function normally. Malaysia is seeing an increase in patients with CKD, affecting around three million Malaysians currently. This was brought about by a rise in prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, exacerbated by poor healthseeking behaviour of the general public. The kidneys are responsible for filtering out waste substances in our body and excreting them through urine. The highly specialised structures in the kidney which carry out the bulk of the filtration work, called glomeruli, can be easily damaged by persistently high blood pressures or blood glucose levels. Therefore, patients with poorly controlled hypertension or diabetes will eventually develop renal impairment and subsequent failure. Renal function is assessed via the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Normal individuals have an eGFR of above 90 ml/kg/1.73m
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