It's World Diabetes Day! 1...
Hello fellow readers!
Welcome back to our blood cancer awareness month series!
Last Wednesday, we talked about the brief overview of blood cancer. Just in case you missed it, you can check out the article by clicking the link HERE.
Now back on our topic, the spotlight for today is -> lymphoma
Lymphoma is the cancer of the lymphatic system (i.e lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels). The abnormal white blood cells, specifically lymphocytes (our B cells and T cells) who are tasked to fight infections, become lymphoma cells when they multiply rapidly and overwhelms the lymphatic system. 1,2,3 The two major types of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). These two lymphoma types can be differentiated by detecting the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells, where the presence of this cell indicates that the patient has Hodgkin lymphoma. 1 Reed-Sternberg cell is also referred to as owl’s eye appearance due to their close resemblance.
Hodgkin lymphoma 4
Hodgkin lymphoma, previously known as Hodgkin disease, is now a curable cancer. There are two types of Hodgkin lymphoma, which are the classic Hodgkin lymphoma and nodular lymphocyte-predominant lymphoma. The latter Hodgkin lymphoma type is much rarer and tends to grow slower than the classic Hodgkin lymphoma. Individuals who are male, in early adulthood (20–39 years old) or late adulthood (>65 years old), have family history of Hodgkin lymphoma or have a history of Epstein-Barr virus infection, are at higher risk of developing this cancer. The signs and symptoms of Hodgkin lymphoma are:
Painless, swollen lymph nodes (neck, underarm or groin)
Fever for no known reason
Unexpected weight loss (past 6 months)
Itchy skin (especially after bathing or drinking alcohol)
B symptoms, such as fever for no known reason, unexpected weight loss, and night sweats, are important in determining the four stages of Hodgkin lymphoma. There are different kinds of treatment options available for Hodgkin lymphoma. Several standard treatment options for this cancer include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) 6
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma occurs more commonly in male adults over 65 years old. There are over 60 different subtypes of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, where 90% of the cases are B-cell NHL and the remaining 10% are T-cell NHL. These subtypes are then further classified into either indolent (slow-growing) or aggressive (fast-growing). A majority of the NHL (60%) is made up of the aggressive NHL, where Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common among all the aggressive subtypes. On the other hand, the most common indolent NHL is follicular lymphoma. According to National Cancer Institute SEER Program, the five-year survival rate for NHL between the year 2011 - 2017 is 73.2%. 5
Similar to Hodgkin lymphoma, NHL can be categorised into four stages. There are three rates for each staging, which are A-rated (no symptoms), B-rated (have symptoms like fever, weight loss, or night sweats), or E-rated (cancer can be found outside of the lymphatic system). Although the symptoms of NHL may vary between subtypes, some common symptoms that can be observed are:
Enlarged lymph nodes (painless)
Unexpected weight loss
Abdominal pain or a feeling of fullness (enlarged spleen or liver)
Chest pain or shortness of breath
That’s all for lymphoma. Next up, we will be talking about leukaemia.
See you on 19 September!
A word from DOC2US
If you have any questions related to lymphoma, you can consult our professional doctors and healthcare professionals on DOC2US. DOC2US is a mobile application that allows you to talk to a doctor or any healthcare professionals via text chat at any time and from anywhere. For better communication, you can even send our online doctor images or voice messages related to your medical inquiry.
Download DOC2US app on Apple App Store, Google Play Store and Huawei App Gallery; or use our webchat at https://web.doc2us.com/
Note: DOC2US is not for medical emergencies. In the event of urgent medical conditions, please call 999.
Disclaimer: As a service to our users and general public, DOC2US provides health education contents. Please note the date of last review or update on all articles. No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.
Photo cover source: emedicinehealth
It's World Diabetes Day! 1...
Yes! Diabetes can affect o...
Ever felt like having feet...
Diabetes is a growing concern ...
Whether a pregnancy test t...
A toddler blinking hard or fas...
Introducing DOC2US, your personal pocket doctor at your fingertips. With its name synonymous to “talk to us”, DOC2US is a mobile application that allows you to talk to a doctor or any healthcare professionals via text chat at any time and from anywhere.